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| Vital Vaccination: Kennel cough ReVisited today's Veterinary Practice July/August 2014 72 tvpjournal.com Peer reviewed viTAL vACCiNATiON SerieS Kennel Cough reviSiTed K ennel cough—it is one of the oldest descriptors of canine disease that appears in the veterinary litera- ture. Aliases include canine cough, canine croup, infectious tracheobronchitis (ITB) and, most recently, canine infectious respiratory disease (CIRD), also known as canine infectious respiratory disease complex (CIRDC). No matter the name, kennel cough is one of the most common canine respiratory infections. As a clinical syn- drome, it has undergone changes in etiology, treatment recommendations, and options for prevention. The causes are many and include a growing list of pathogenic bacte- ria and viruses. 1-7 The most notable changes, however, are found in vaccine options and claims of efficacy. The controversies in this area include: • Roles of vaccination in treating active infections • Onset of immunity following vaccination • Duration of immunity • Public health implications of Bordetella bronchiseptica, including risk associated with human exposure to live avirulent (intranasal and oral) vaccine. PATHOGENIC AGENTS CIRD is well recognized as a contagious upper respira- tory infection of dogs resulting from bacterial or viral infection. Because clinical manifestations vary accord- ing to the primary infecting agent, or combination of agents, CIRD is appropriately referred to as a respiratory syndrome. B bronchiseptica is commonly implicated as the principal cause of kennel cough; 8 however, it is by no means the exclusive, nor is it the most virulent, patho- gen implicated. Bacteria Bacteria recovered from dogs exhibiting signs consistent with CIRD include: • B bronchiseptica • Streptococcus equi subspecies zooepidemicus (some- times called strep zoo) • Mycoplasma species (to a lesser extent), particularly M cynos. B bronchiseptica. B bronchiseptica is a gram negative bacterium capable of infecting multiple species, including humans, and it can potentially be transmitted from dogs (and possibly cats) to humans. Simply recovering B bronchiseptica from the respiratory tract of a coughing dog/cat does not define its role as caus- ative. This pathogen has the unique ability to reside on epi- thelial cells of the upper respiratory tract as a commensal organism; hence, B bronchiseptica is commonly recovered from the respiratory tract of healthy dogs and cats. For reasons not fully understood, these "innocent" bacteria are able to transition into highly pathogenic organisms. Bor- Richard B. Ford, DVM, MS, Diplomate ACVIM & ACVPM (Hon) North Carolina State University this article provides an overview of ciRd from the perspective of clinical manifestations and prevention, including vaccines and vaccination protocols. turn to page 30 to read dr. laura nafe's article, Diagnostic & Therapeutic Approach: Dogs Infected with Bor- detella bronchiseptica & Canine Influenza Virus (H3N8) , for in-depth information on diagnosis and treatment of ciRd.