Today's Veterinary Practice

SEP-OCT 2018

Today's Veterinary Practice provides comprehensive information to keep every small animal practitioner up to date on companion animal medicine and surgery as well as practice building and management.

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PEER REVIEWED 52 SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 2018 Dog The canine liver ( FIGURE 1A ) is hypoechoic relative to the adjacent spleen. The falciform fat in dogs is not necessarily a good indicator of overall liver echogenicity, as it may appear hypo-, iso-, or hyperechoic relative to the liver in a normal dog. Canine portal veins have distinct hyperechoic walls. 12 Cat Unlike in dogs, the feline liver ( FIGURE 1B ) is typically isoechoic to the falciform fat, which is thicker than in dogs. However, the liver becomes hyperechoic in clinically obese cats secondary to lipid-rich liver or feline hepatic lipidosis or hypoechoic as with active hepatitis or lymphoma ( FIGURE 2 ). The hepatic portal veins in cats are less distinct than in dogs. GALLBLADDER The gallbladder is a thin-walled (<1 mm), fluid-filled, anechoic structure ( FIGURE 3 ). Its degree of distention in both species varies, depending on when the last meal was eaten and the fat content of that meal. 13 TABLE 1 Normal Abdominal Organ Measurements in Dogs and Cats ORGAN DOG CAT Gallbladder wall thickness 1 mm 1 1 mm 1 Common bile duct diameter Not visualized 1 <4 mm 1 Spleen thickness Not reported Up to 10 mm 1 Kidney length Reduced if LK:Ao <5.5 2 Increased if LK:Ao >9.1 2 3.66 ± 0.46 cm 1 Renal length to vertebral length (measured as a straight line from ventral or lateral aspect of L5 or L6) ratios 1.3–2.73 3.5–4.4 cm 1 Renal pelvis width Normally not dilated; if 1–3 mm, diuresis is likely 1 ; other causes of pyelectasia are possible; if ≥13 mm, obstruction is possible 4 Normally not dilated, but can be 1–3 mm Urinary bladder wall thickness Minimally distended: mean 2.3 mm 5 Mildly distended: mean 1.6 mm 5 Moderately distended: mean 1.4 mm 5 Fully distended: 1–2 mm 1 Minimally distended: mean 2.3 mm 5 Mildly distended: mean 1.6 mm 5 Moderately distended: mean 1.4 mm 5 Fully distended: 1–2 mm 1 Adrenal gland caudal pole height Mean: <0.74 cm 1 <10 kg: ≤0.54 cm 10–30 kg: ≤0.68 cm >30 kg: ≤0.80 cm 6 0.4–0.46 cm 1 ; 0.8 cm in length Pancreas thickness (mean)* Left: 4.8–8.2 mm 7 Body: 4.7–7.9 mm 7 Right: 6.3–9.9 mm 7 Left: 3.4–9.0 mm 1,8 Body: 2.5–9.5 mm 1,8,9 Right: 2.8–6.0 mm 1,8 Pancreatic duct diameter* Mean: <1 mm Mean: <2.5 mm 9 Age ≤10 years: 0.5–1.3 mm 8 Age ≥10 years: 0.6–2.4 mm 10 Ovary size (in estrus) 1 Length: 1.5 cm Thickness: 0.5 cm Width: 0.7 cm 0.5 × 0.5 × 0.5 cm LK:Ao, ratio of left kidney length to aortic luminal diameter. Superscript numbers are reference citations. *In dogs, pancreatic thickness and pancreatic duct diameter significantly increase with body weight. Figure 2. Long-axis view of the feline liver. The liver is hypoechoic relative to the falciform fat. Distinct hepatic vascular walls are not as readily seen as in the dog.

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