Today's Veterinary Practice

SEP-OCT 2018

Today's Veterinary Practice provides comprehensive information to keep every small animal practitioner up to date on companion animal medicine and surgery as well as practice building and management.

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PEER REVIEWED 54 SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 2018 Dog The neck of the gallbladder should taper normally; consequently, the cystic and bile ducts are not visualized to the level of the major duodenal papilla in dogs ( FIGURE 4 ). Echogenic material within the canine gallbladder is considered normal but has been seen in a higher incidence in dogs with Cushing's disease. 14,15 Typically, echogenic material in the gallbladder is more gravity dependent (in the far field). Cat The gallbladder can be bilobed in the cat as a normal anatomic variant ( FIGURE 3B ). 16 In normal cats, the cystic and bile ducts can be followed to the level of the major duodenal papilla and can measure up to 2 to 3 mm in diameter ( FIGURE 5 ). 17 If echogenic material is seen in the feline gallbladder in conjunction with wall thickening, consider cholecystitis or cholangiohepatitis as a diagnostic differential; the normal feline gallbladder usually does not contain echogenic material. 18,19 SPLEEN In both species, the spleen can have a fine, heterogeneous echotexture when using a high- resolution linear transducer when compared with the microconvex transducer. The splenic arteries are not apparent without color Doppler evaluation. Dog In the dog, the craniodorsal extremity (sometimes called the head) of the spleen is located immediately to the left of the gastric fundus and may change its location based on the degree of gastric distention ( FIGURE 6A ). The splenic size in dogs is also variable, and in some breeds it can be quite large (e.g., Figure 3. (A) Short-axis view of the canine liver. Note the round, thin-walled, anechoic gallbladder located within the right side of the liver. The bile within the gallbladder is anechoic. Its fluid nature causes distal acoustic enhancement, noted in the far field of the image (white arrow). (B) Long-axis view of the feline liver. Note the thin- walled, bilobed gallbladder (*) with mirror-image artifact on the opposing side of the diaphragm. A B Figure 4. Short-axis view of the canine major duodenal papilla (white arrowhead) at the level of the orad descending duodenum. Note the normal focal thickening of the hyperechoic submucosal layer of the duodenum at the level of the insertion of the major duodenal papilla. Figure 5. Short-axis view of the feline cystic duct at the level of the gallbladder. Note the gradual tapering and relative distention of the feline cystic duct; this is considered normal in a cat with a measurement of <3 mm. A small amount of echogenic sludge is in the lumen of the gallbladder.

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