Today's Veterinary Practice

SEP-OCT 2018

Today's Veterinary Practice provides comprehensive information to keep every small animal practitioner up to date on companion animal medicine and surgery as well as practice building and management.

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CLINICAL INSIGHTS SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 2018 55 greyhound, German shepherd). The canine spleen is easy to find but difficult to trace in its entirety due to its size. A left-sided intercostal approach may be necessary to visualize the entire dorsal aspect (head) of the spleen. The splenic portal veins are seen along the visceral (mesenteric) surface of the spleen. Cat The feline spleen is positioned along the left body wall, lateral to the stomach, and is more consistent in size and location than in dogs; it should not be >1 cm in thickness, which is measured on the left lateral aspect of the abdomen in the near field of the image. 1 The feline spleen is usually no longer than 3 to 5 cm. 1 The feline spleen has a coarser echotexture than the canine spleen ( FIGURE 6B ). In cats, the spleen can be difficult to visualize as it is often isoechoic to slightly hypoechoic relative to the surrounding mesenteric fat and is located in the near field (within the first centimeter). The splenic portal veins are less apparent in cats but can still be found, particularly with color Doppler. KIDNEYS The normal right and left kidneys of both dogs and cats should be symmetric, with a sharp zone of transition between the cortex and medulla; they are usually bean shaped at the hilum when imaged in dorsal plane ( FIGURE 7 ). The cortex is relatively hyperechoic. In the renal diverticular regions, hyperechoic thin-walled vessels, called arcuate vessels, can be mistaken for renal diverticular mineralization; however, these vessels are normal in dogs and cats. Figure 6. Long-axis views (relative to the body of the patient, resulting in a short-axis view of the organ itself) of the (A) canine and (B) feline spleen. Note that in both species, the spleen is superficial, being located close to the abdominal body wall, in the near field. The canine spleen is smoother and more "tightly packed" in echotexture than the canine liver. The feline spleen (red bracket) is more difficult to distinguish from the adjacent mesenteric fat; however, the hyperechoic surrounding splenic capsule can be used to differentiate the spleen from the surrounding mesentery. A B Figure 7. Long-axis views of the left kidney in the (A) dog and (B) cat. Note the visible corticomedullary distinction of both normal kidneys. The canine kidney (seen in the sagittal plane due to the presence of the renal pelvis) is bean shaped and oblong, whereas the feline kidney (dorsal plane) is more rounded. A B

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