Today's Veterinary Practice

SEP-OCT 2018

Today's Veterinary Practice provides comprehensive information to keep every small animal practitioner up to date on companion animal medicine and surgery as well as practice building and management.

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PEER REVIEWED 56 SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 2018 Dog Renal size in dogs varies based on body conformation. Therefore, a normal ratio of left kidney length to aortic luminal diameter (LK:Ao) has been established ( TABLE 1 ). Kidney size is a nonspecific indicator of renal disease, as histopathologically abnormal kidneys may still be normal in size. In normal dogs, there can be an inner hyperechoic band associated with the renal cortex that has been shown to represent the outer renal medulla (not seen in cats). 20 Cat In cats, the kidneys are more consistent in size, with a normal length of 3.5 to 4.5 cm. Fat deposition in the renal sinus is greater in cats than in dogs. Castrated male cats tend to have more hyperechoic kidneys from increased fat deposition ( FIGURE 8 ). 21 URINARY BLADDER, URETHRA, AND CANINE PROSTATE In dogs and cats, the layers of the urinary bladder are difficult to distinguish ( FIGURE 9A AND 9B ). In addition, the urinary bladder wall thickness and size can be variable, depending on the volume and size of the patient ( TABLE 1 ). Dog The canine prostate is visualized caudal to the trigone (urinary bladder neck) and located surrounding the proximal aspect of the urethra. It is uniformly hypoechoic and fusiform in a neutered male dog but appears large, homogeneously hyperechoic, and rounded in an intact dog. Enlargement and heterogeneity (small anechoic cysts) are common in adult/older male intact dogs, likely representing benign prostatic cystic hyperplasia ( FIGURE 10 ). In dogs, the trigone and proximal urethra can be in a pelvic position and thereby not evaluable from a transabdominal approach. Cat In cats, the urinary bladder can be smaller in volume, be more consistent in size, and contain suspended echogenic contents representing normal mucus or fat droplets. The feline prostate is not a discrete macroscopic structure, so it will not be ultrasonographically visualized, although it is present histologically. Although rare, prostatic carcinoma can occur in cats, so the proximal urethra should be evaluated in male cats. The proximal urethra is typically in an abdominal location and can be evaluated ( FIGURE 9C ). ADRENAL GLANDS TABLE 2 describes the ultrasonographic localization of the left and right adrenal glands in the dog and cat. Dog Canine adrenal glands appear as long, thin structures. Figure 8. Short-axis view of the left feline kidney. Note the subjective hyperechoic renal pelvis (white arrowheads) relative to the adjacent medulla. TABLE 2 Localization of Canine and Feline Adrenal Glands DOG CAT Left adrenal gland Left renal artery is the caudal delimiter; "cat eyes" (celiac and cranial mesenteric arteries) are the cranial delimiters Adjacent or caudal to celiac and cranial mesenteric artery; the left renal artery is often difficult to find Right adrenal gland Adjacent and medial to right kidney and immediately dorsolateral or lateral to the caudal vena cava Cranial to right kidney and caudal to the caudate lobe of the liver; lateral to caudal vena cava

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