Today's Veterinary Practice

SEP-OCT 2018

Today's Veterinary Practice provides comprehensive information to keep every small animal practitioner up to date on companion animal medicine and surgery as well as practice building and management.

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CLINICAL INSIGHTS SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 2018 57 The left adrenal gland is often peanut-shaped in small- breed dogs ( FIGURE 11A ); it can appear pancake- or "lawn chair"-shaped in medium-sized and large dogs. The right adrenal gland is usually oval in small-breed dogs and pancake- or V-shaped in medium- and large-breed dogs. Normal adrenal gland sizes for dogs and cats have been reported. The commonly accepted normal height for the caudal pole of the canine adrenal glands is 0.5 to 0.741; however, recent studies have suggested taking the body weight of the patient into account for a more accurate size measurement. 6 Clinical findings and results of additional diagnostic tests should be taken into account when adrenal gland measurements are obtained and interpreted. Mineralization in canine adrenal glands is seen in adrenal neoplastic masses. Cat Feline adrenal glands are usually oval or bean-shaped, bilaterally symmetrical in size, and hypoechoic relative to the surrounding retroperitoneal fat. Two adrenal gland measurements have been proposed for cats: 4.0 to 4.6 mm in height 22 and 5.3 mm in width. 23 It is more difficult to see the distinction between the adrenal cortex and medulla in cats. Mineralization of the feline adrenal gland is considered an incidental finding ( FIGURE 11B ). PANCREAS 1,8,9 The pancreas in the dog and cat can be isoechoic to the surrounding mesenteric fat and therefore not readily visualized. Decreasing the dynamic range of the image to create more contrast in the image can help in identifying the pancreas as it becomes more hypoechoic relative to the surrounding mesenteric fat. Figure 10. (A) Long- and (B) short-axis views of the prostate gland from an intact male dog. Note the smoothly marginated, symmetric, moderately enlarged, hyperechoic prostate consistent with benign prostatic hyperplasia. (C) Long-axis view of the prostate gland from a 10-month-old Boston terrier that was neutered at 4 months of age. The prostate is fusiform and hypoechoic (white arrowhead). A B C Figure 9. Long-axis views of the (A) canine urinary bladder, (B) feline urinary bladder, and (C) proximal feline urethra. Both urinary bladders are moderately distended, making the wall layers difficult to distinguish. In C, note the gradual transition of the feline urinary bladder to the urethra (white arrows). A B C

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