Today's Veterinary Practice

SEP-OCT 2018

Today's Veterinary Practice provides comprehensive information to keep every small animal practitioner up to date on companion animal medicine and surgery as well as practice building and management.

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PEER REVIEWED 58 SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 2018 Dog In dogs, the right lobe of the pancreas ( FIGURE 12A ) is easier to identify based on its larger size relative to the left lobe and proximity to the descending duodenum. The canine pancreas generally varies in size depending on the size of the dog.7 The normal canine pancreatic duct is inconsistent in being identified. When present, the canine pancreatic duct appears as 2 hyperechoic parallel lines in the center of the pancreas.7 Cat In cats, the left lobe of the pancreas ( FIGURE 12B ) is easier to identify because it is larger than the right lobe (the descending duodenum in cats is more difficult to identify because of its midline and dorsal position compared with the canine descending colon). The centrally located feline pancreatic duct can be routinely identified and is commonly used as a landmark to identify the pancreas. The feline pancreas duct diameter increases with age in normal cats ( TABLE 1 ). 8-10 GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT The gastrointestinal tract of dogs ( FIGURE 13 ) and cats ( FIGURE 14 ) has 5 layers: ■ Outer serosa (hyperechoic) ■ Muscularis (hypoechoic) ■ Submucosa (hyperechoic) ■ Mucosa (hypoechoic) ■ Inner mucosal-luminal interface (hyperechoic) Figure 11. (A) Long-axis view of the left canine adrenal gland. Note the peanut shape with a well- delineated adrenal cortex and medulla. The hypoechoic phrenicoabdominal vein between the cranial and caudal poles is seen in the near field. The anechoic structure in the far field is the adjacent cranial mesenteric artery. (B) Long- axis view of the feline adrenal gland (white arrowhead). Note the oval shape and central hyperechoic focus (black arrowhead), representing incidental mineralization. A B Figure 12. (A) Short-axis view of the right lobe of the pancreas in a normal dog. Note the location in relation to the right kidney (RK) and descending duodenum (DUO). The duodenum is typically located lateral to the right lobe of the pancreas, and the right kidney is typically located medial to the right lobe of the pancreas. (B) Long-axis view of the left lobe (short-axis position of the transducer relative to the abdomen) of the pancreas in a normal cat. Note the location (between the calipers) in relation to the left kidney (LK) and the presence of the pancreatic duct (anechoic tubular structure located central to the pancreas). The left lobe of the pancreas is typically found craniolateral to the cranial pole of the left kidney and medial to the body of the spleen, between the caudal border of the stomach and the cranial border of the transverse colon. A B

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