Today's Veterinary Practice

JAN-FEB 2018

Today's Veterinary Practice provides comprehensive information to keep every small animal practitioner up to date on companion animal medicine and surgery as well as practice building and management.

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PEER REVIEWED 74 FOCUS ON LEPTOSPIROSIS A 1-year-old, castrated male miniature dachshund was presented for an acute onset of lethargy, anorexia, and vomiting. HISTORY The patient was evaluated upon referral for a 48-hour history of lethargy, anorexia, and vomiting. He was also noticeably polyuric and polydipsic during the 48 hours prior to presentation. He was reported to be housed predominantly indoors and lived with one other dog, a Yorkshire terrier, who was unaffected. He had no history of prior illness and had received his complete series of puppy core vaccinations (distemper virus, parvovirus, adenovirus, and parainfluenza series; and rabies initial vaccine). He had not yet received his first adult boosters. Physical Examination and Diagnostics On original presentation to the referring veterinarian, the patient was depressed, weighed 3.0 kg, was assessed to be 5% to 7% dehydrated, and was febrile (102.8°F). A complete blood count (CBC) and serum biochemical profile were performed ( TABLE 1 ). His urine specific gravity (USG) before fluid therapy was 1.012. Initial Therapy The patient was administered 50% dextrose and Nutri- Cal ( ) orally. He was hospitalized for 8 hours and received IV fluid therapy, maropitant, famotidine, and ampicillin. He was sent home with sucralfate, famotidine, and instructions to feed a bland diet. When his lethargy and anorexia continued into the following day, referral was recommended. PHYSICAL EXAMINATION AND INITIAL DIAGNOSTICS On presentation, the patient was quiet and alert, adequately hydrated, weighed 3.18 kg, and was in adequate body condition (BCS 5/9). His rectal temperature was elevated (102.7°F). He appeared painful on palpation of his abdomen, and his kidneys were subjectively enlarged. The remainder of his physical examination revealed no abnormalities. A CBC, serum biochemical profile, and urinalysis were performed ( TABLE 2 ). DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS Based on the patient's signalment, history, physical examination, and initial blood work results, the Leptospirosis Madeline Fujishiro, DVM Kate E. Creevy, DVM, MS, DACVIM Texas A&M University FOCUS ON

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