Today's Veterinary Practice

JAN-FEB 2018

Today's Veterinary Practice provides comprehensive information to keep every small animal practitioner up to date on companion animal medicine and surgery as well as practice building and management.

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SOLVING A MEDICAL MYSTERY Recent coverage of the Lone Star tick in popular media has focused on the spread of an unusual red meat allergy known as alpha-gal syndrome. Those with the condition discover they suddenly cannot tolerate red meat despite having eaten it normally their whole lives. Symptoms of a severe allergic reaction often develop three to six hours after meat consumption with patients often waking in the middle of the night with post-dinner hives and anaphylaxis. 2 Dr. Scott Commins, an allergist at the University of North Carolina- Chapel Hill, was part of the team that confi rmed a link between the Lone Star tick's bite and the mysterious allergy. He and his colleagues found that maps depicting cases of Rocky Mountain spotted fever – also transmitted by the Lone Star tick – neatly matched maps of reported alpha-gal syndrome cases. 3 A GROWING POPULATION The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention report the Lone Star tick can already be found in at least 30 U.S. states. 4 However, sightings are popping up in new areas all the time. Tick experts including Dr. Thomas Mather, professor of entomology and director of the TickEncounter Resource Center at the University of Rhode Island, attribute their spread to an abundance of hosts in the form of a growing white-tailed deer population in diff erent areas of the country. 5 A TICK IS A TICK IS A TICK? Think a tick is a tick, no matter what kind? Not true. Identifying the species can help in understanding the risk for tick-borne diseases when advising clients, says Dr. Brian Herrin, veterinary parasitologist at Kansas State University. For example, the Lone Star tick does not transmit Lyme disease, but it does pose a risk by transmitting other pathogens, such as those that cause Rocky Mountain spotted fever and ehrlichiosis in dogs. 6 Do you know what to look for? Test your skills with our quiz to the right. You can also learn more about the Lone Star tick and tick- borne diseases at the TickEncounter Resource Center website: tickencounter.org. Part one of a three-part series The Lone Star tick is an aggressive, biting parasite that feeds on numerous hosts, including deer, dogs and humans. Already common in the southern United States, the Lone Star tick continues to expand to new parts of the country. 1 It's important to know how to help your clients protect their pets. Match the Tick! THE LONE STAR TICK IS SPREADING: KNOW WHAT TO LOOK FOR "To identify any tick, look at the scutum! The scutum's markings are unique to each species. Even when a tick is fully engorged, you can still see the scutum." - Dr. Thomas Mather, professor of entomology and Director of the TickEncounter Resource Center at the University of Rhode Island The scutum's markings are unique to each species. Even when a tick is fully engorged, you can still see the scutum." - and Director of the TickEncounter Resource Center at the University of Rhode Island How can you tell? Scutum 1 Springer YP, Jarnevich CS, Barnett DT, et al. Modeling the Present and Future Geographic Distribution of the Lone Star Tick, Amblyomma americanum (Ixodida: Ixodidae), in the Continental United States. Am J Trop Med Hyg . 2015; 93(4): 875-890. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4596614/. Accessed October 11, 2017. 2 Wolver SE, Sun DR, Commins SP, et al. A peculiar cause of anaphylaxis: no more steak? The journey to discovery of a newly recognized allergy to galactose-alpha-1-3-galactose found in mammalian meat. J Gen Intern Med . 2013; 28(2): 325. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22815061. Accessed October 11, 2017. 3 Commins SP, James HR, Kelly EA, et al. The relevance of tick bites to the production of IgE antibodies to the mamma- lian oligosaccharide galactose-α-1,3-galactose. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2011;127(5):1286-1293. https://www.ncbi.nlm. nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3085643/. Accessed October 11, 2017. 4 "Approximate distribution of the Lone Star tick." Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. https://www.cdc.gov/ ticks/maps/lone_star_tick.html. Accessed October 10, 2017. 5 Paddock CD, Yabsley MJ. Ecological havoc, the rise of white-tailed deer, and the emergence of Amblyomma america- num -associated zoonosis in the United States. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol . 2007; 315:289-324. https://www.ncbi.nlm. nih.gov/pubmed/17848069. Accessed October 11, 2017. 6 "Amblyomma americanum (Lone Star ticks)." University of Rhode Island TickEncounter Center. http://tickencounter. org/tick_identifi cation/lone_star_tick#top. Accessed October 10, 2017. © 2018 Merial Inc., Duluth, GA. All rights reserved. NEXLSTADVERTORIAL1 A. Brown Dog Tick; B. American Dog Tick; C. Lone Star Tick; D. Black Legged (Deer )Tick ADVERTORIAL

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