Today's Veterinary Practice

JAN-FEB 2018

Today's Veterinary Practice provides comprehensive information to keep every small animal practitioner up to date on companion animal medicine and surgery as well as practice building and management.

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87 JANUARY/FEBRUARY 2018 ‚óŹ TVPJOURNAL.COM CLINICAL INSIGHTS mucosal layer, representing 63% of the total wall thickness. At times, Peyer's patches, or pseudoulcers, can be seen when using ultrasonography, forming focal depressions of the mucosal surface ( FIGURE 6 ). The feline duodenum has a similar thickness and appearance to the jejunum; the mucosa is not as apparent as in the dog ( FIGURE 7 ). Within the cranial aspect of the descending duodenum, the major duodenal papilla can be seen ( FIGURE 8 ), particularly when using a high resolution, high frequency, linear or curved array transducer. The major duodenal papilla in the cat varies from 2.9 to 5.5 mm in width and has a maximum thickness of 4 mm on the transverse view. 13 In normal dogs and cats, the small intestines are relatively uniform in distribution. Depending on the segment of small intestine, some layers may be thicker than others. This can be used to identify the different segments of intestines. For example, in the dog, the mucosal layer of the duodenum is thicker than the mucosal layer of the jejunum. FIGURE 6. Longitudinal axis view of the proximal descending duodenum of a normal dog. The focal indentation ( white arrow ) in the duodenal mucosa (rectangular or square hyperechoic area) is a "pseudoulcer" due to a Peyer's patch; this is a normal finding in the dog. FIGURE 5. The transverse axis view of an empty stomach of a normal cat has the appearance of a wagon wheel. Note the thick, hyperechoic submucosal layer of the stomach, commonly due to fat deposition ( white arrowhead ). FIGURE 7. Longitudinal axis view of the proximal descending duodenum of a normal cat (A) and normal dog (B). The cat has a thinner mucosal layer and thicker submucosal layer than the dog. A B FIGURE 8. Longitudinal axis view of the proximal descending duodenum of a normal dog. The major duodenal papilla ( calipers ) is located along the dorsal margin of the duodenum.

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