Today's Veterinary Practice

JAN-FEB 2018

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PEER REVIEWED 90 IMAGING ESSENTIALS The site of a gastropexy may have a focal thickening and alteration of normal wall layers. 6,32 Uremic gastritis can be seen in patients with chronic uremia. Findings include thickening of the gastric wall and a hyperechoic line in the mucosal or submucosal layer, representing mineralization. 33,34 Nonspecific gastritis, such as infectious or toxic (eg, peroxide toxicity), can cause wall edema and wall thickening without a total loss of wall layering. Absence of visible abnormalities on ultrasound does not rule out gastritis. Occasionally, perigastric hyperechoic fat is noted in association with gastritis. DUODENUM AND JEJUNUM ABNORMALITIES Foreign Body A large foreign body can cause a distinct hyperechoic interface with strong distal acoustic shadowing. 8,35-37 Linear foreign bodies have a characteristic appearance as a result of the plication of the small intestines. Oftentimes, the linear foreign body itself is identified, forming a focal hyperechoic linear band seen centrally within the affected small intestinal lumen ( FIGURE 14 ). 36,38 The bowel proximal to an obstructive foreign body is typically dilated with fluid, gas, and possible food material, whereas the bowel distal to the obstruction is empty or normal. If a foreign body is suspected in a dog with dilated segments of small intestine, FIGURE 13. Longitudinal axis view of a segment of small intestines of a dog diagnosed with intestinal pythiosis. Note the heterogeneous and ill-defined structure of this eccentrically located mass ( calipers ). FIGURE 14. Longitudinal axis views of segments of small intestines from two dogs diagnosed with linear foreign body obstruction (A, B). Note the plicated appearance of the small intestinal loop ( black arrowheads ), which is pathognomonic for a linear foreign body. A B FIGURE 15. Transverse axis view of the ileocolic junction of a dog diagnosed with an ileocolic intussusception ( calipers ) with focal muscularis thickening ( white arrow ), likely due to infiltrative disease that was histopathologically confirmed to be lymphoplasmacytic enteritis.

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