Today's Veterinary Practice

MAR-APR 2018

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69 MARCH/APRIL 2018 ● TVPJOURNAL.COM CLINICAL INSIGHTS Common intestinal inflammatory bowel diseases, such as lymphocytic-plasmacytic enteritis, are usually associated with mild to moderate wall thickening, affecting several or all intestinal segments with variable severity. 35,36 Other ultrasonographic features of intestinal inflammatory diseases include symmetric, mild to moderate wall thickening, affecting primarily the mucosa, submucosa, and/or muscularis layer; diffuse increased echogenicity of the mucosa; or presence of bright mucosal speckles ( FIGURE 13 ). 41,42 In severe cases of colitis, the wall layering may be altered or lost. Additionally, micronodular, submucosal hypoechoic and/or anechoic lesions measuring 1 to 3 mm in diameter, representing intraparietal lymphoid follicles, may be present in dogs and cats with inflammatory bowel disease. 43 Differentiation between colitis and large intestinal infiltrative neoplasia may be difficult; 44 however, according to recent literature, dogs with intestinal tumors had significantly greater wall thickness, loss of wall layering, and more focal lesions than dogs with enteritis. 42 Ultimately, histopathology is required to differentiate between colitis and infiltrative neoplasia. 44 SUMMARY Common ultrasonographic abnormalities of the dog and cat gastrointestinal tract may have neoplastic or nonneoplastic etiologies and, once identified, may require further diagnostics for definitive diagnosis. A systematic examination of the gastrointestinal tract is a routine part of the complete abdominal evaluation. References 1. Penninck DG, Nyland TG, Fisher PE, Kerr LY. Ultrasonography of the normal canine gastrointestinal tract. Vet Radiol Ultrasound 1989;30(6):272-276. 2. Newell SM, Graham JP, Roberts GD, et al. Sonography of the normal feline gastrointestinal tract. Vet Radiol Ultrasound 1999;40(1):40-43. 3. Goggin JM, Biller DS, Debey BM, et al. Ultrasonographic measurement of gastrointestinal wall thickness and the ultrasonographic appearance of the ileocolic region in healthy cats. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 2000;36(3):224-228. 4. Stander N, Wagner WM, Goddard A, Kirberger RM. Normal canine pediatric gastrointestinal ultrasonography. Vet Radiol Ultrasound 2010;51(1):75-7 8. 5. Penninck DG, d'Anjou M. Atlas of Small Animal Ultrasonography. 2nd ed. Ames: Wiley Blackwell; 2015. 6. Di Donato P, Penninck D, Pietra M, et al. Ultrasonographic measurement of the relative thickness of intestinal wall layers in clinically healthy cats. J Feline Med Surg 2014;16(4):333-339. 7. Larson MM, Biller DS. Ultrasound of the Gastrointestinal Tract. Vet Clin North Am: Small Anim Pract 2009;39:747-759. 8. Hahn H, Pey P, Baril A, et al. Ultrasonographic, endoscopic and histological appearances of the caecum in cats presenting with chronic clinical signs of caecocolic disease. J Feline Med Surg 2017;19(2):94-104. 9. Mahony OM, Moore AS, Cotter SM, et al. Alimentary lymphoma in cats: 28 cases (1988-1993). JAVMA 1995;207(12):1593-1598. 10. Penninck DG, Moore AS, Tidwell AS, et al. Ultrasonography of alimentary lymphosarcoma in the cat. Vet Radiol Ultrasound 1994;35(4):299-306. 11. Gladwin NE, Penninck DG, Webster CR. Ultrasonographic evaluation of the thickness of the wall layers in the intestinal tract of dogs. Am J Vet Res 2014;75(4):349-353. 12. Winter MD, Londono L, Berry CR, Hernandez JA. Ultrasonographic evaluation of relative gastrointestinal layer thickness in cats without clinical evidence of gastrointestinal tract disease. J Feline Med Surg 2014;16(2):118-124. 13. Besso JG, Rault D, Begon D. Feline cecum and ileocecocolic junction: normal ultrasonographic features and clinical applications (abstract). Vet Radiol Ultrasound 2004;45:599. 14. Grooters AM, Biller DS, Ward H, et al. Ultrasonographic appearance of feline alimentary lymphoma. Vet Radiol Ultrasound 1994;35(6):468-472. 15. Tams TR. Handbook of Small Animal Gastroenterology. 2nd ed. St. Louis: Saunders; 2003. 16. Sato AF, Solano M. Ultrasonographic findings in abdominal mast cell disease: a retrospective study of 19 patients. Vet Radiol Ultrasound 2004;45(1):51-57. 17. Laurenson MP, Skorupski KA, Moore PF, Zwingenberger AL. Ultrasonography of intestinal mast cell tumors in the cat. Vet Radiol Ultrasound 2011;52(3):330-334. 18. Sharpe A, Cannon MJ, Lucke VM, Day MJ. Intestinal haemangiosarcoma in the cat: clinical and pathological features of four cases. J Small Anim Pract 2000;41(9):411-415. 19. Culp WT, Drobatz KJ, Glassman MM, et al. Feline visceral hemangiosarcoma. J Vet Intern Med 2008;22(1):148-152. 20. Penninck DG, Nyland TG, Kerr LY, Fisher PE. Ultrasonographic Evaluation of Gastrointestinal-Diseases in Small Animals. Vet Radiol Ultrasound 1990;31(3):134-141. 21. Larson MM, Biller DS. Ultrasound of the gastrointestinal tract. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 2009;39(4):747-759. 22. Garcia DA, Froes TR, Vilani RG, et al. Ultrasonography of small intestinal obstructions: a contemporary approach. J Small Anim Pract 2011;52(9):484-490. Elizabeth Huynh Elizabeth Huynh, DVM, is a diagnostic imaging resident and graduate student at University of Florida College of Veterinary Medicine. Her interests include ultrasonography, cross-sectional imaging, and nuclear medicine. She received her DVM from Ross University, finished her clinical year at Ohio State University, and completed a diagnostic imaging internship at Animal Specialty and Emergency Center in Los Angeles, California. Clifford R. Berry Clifford R. Berry, DVM, DACVR, is a professor of diagnostic imaging at University of Florida College of Veterinary Medicine. His research interests include cross-sectional imaging of the thorax, nuclear medicine, and biomedical applications of imaging. He received his DVM from University of Florida and completed a radiology residency at University of California–Davis.

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