Today's Veterinary Practice

MAR-APR 2018

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75 MARCH/APRIL 2018 ● TVPJOURNAL.COM CLINICAL INSIGHTS Vaccine Reaction After Distemper Vaccination Because of the high risk for ferrets to develop a vaccine reaction, if they are vaccinated with the standard CDV vaccine approved for dogs, it was not recommended for use in ferrets in the United States. In 1978, a fatal case of a vaccine-induced canine distemper virus infection was reported among 4 black-footed ferrets in South Dakota. Insufficient attenuation of the vaccine for this species was assumed to be the cause of death. 13 A similar case was reported in 2 young kinkajous (Potos flavus) in 1981. 14 Most adverse effects consisted of an anaphylactic reaction ( FIGURE 4 ) within 5 to 25 minutes after vaccination. 17 They are commonly described in ferrets vaccinated for distemper and in combination with rabies. We recommend using only 1 vaccine (either rabies or distemper) at a time to document which vaccine caused the reaction and to permit the filing of a report ( fda.gov ). Patients show clinical symptoms of an anaphylactic reaction, including generalized hyperemia, ptyalism, and vomiting. Therefore, observation of the patient for 60 minutes after vaccination is recommended. To prevent any liability issues, owners should be informed about potential risks of the vaccine before application. 17 Emergency treatment with IV fluids (lactated Ringers solution, 10 mL/kg per hour), epinephrine (0.1 mL of a 1:1,000 solution SC) 17 , diphenhydramine (1mg/kg SC, or 0.5mg/kg PO) 17 and metoclopramide (3 mg/kg SC) 18 is indicated. Supplemental oxygen and stabilization of body temperature should be provided in severe cases. References 1. Wyllie SE, Kelmanb M, Warda MP. Epidemiology and clinical presentation of canine distemper disease in dogs and ferrets in Australia, 2006–2014. Austral Vet J 2016;94,:215-222. 2. Slanetz CA, Smetana H. An epizootic disease of ferrets caused by a filterable virus. J Exp Med 1937;66:657-666. 3. Deem SL, Spelman LH, Yates RA, et al. Canine distemper in terrestrial carnivores: a review. J Zoo Wildlife Med 2000;31:441-451. 4. Perpiñán D, Ramis A, Tomás A, et al. Outbreak of canine distemper in domestic ferrets (Mustela putorius furo). Vet Rec 2008;163:246-250. 5. Jensen WA, Totten JS, Lappin MR. Use of serologic tests to predict resistance to Canine distemper virus–induced disease in vaccinated dogs. J Vet Diagnost Invest 2015;27:576-580. 6. Green CE, Appel MJ. Canine distemper. In: Green CE (ed): Infectious Diseases of the Dog and Cat, 3 rd ed. Philadelphia: Saunders, 2005, pp 27-41. 7. De Vries RD, Duprex WP, Swart RL. Morbillivirus infections: an introduction. Viruses 2015;7:699-706. 8. Lempp C, Spitzbarth I, Puff C, et al. New aspects of the pathogenesis of canine distemper leukoencephalitis. Viruses 2014;6:2571-2601. 9. Trebbien R, Chriel M, Struve T, et al. Wildlife reservoirs of canine distemper virus resulted in a major outbreak in Danish farmed mink (Neovision vison). PLoS One 2014;9:1-11. 10. Sekulin K, Haner-Marx A, Kolodziejek J, et al. Emergence of canine distemper in Bavarian wildlife associated with a specific amino acid exchange in the haemagglutinin protein. Vet J 2011;18 7:399-401. 11. L ednicky JA, Dubach J, Kinsel MJ, et al. Genetically distant American canine distemper virus lineages have recently caused epizootics with somewhat different characteristics in raccoons living around a large suburban zoo in the USA. Virol J. 2004;1:2. 12. von Messling V, Springfeld C, Devaux P, Cattaneo R. A ferret model of canine distemper virus virulence and immunosuppression. J Virol 2003;77:12579-12591. 13. Carpenter JW, Appel MJ, Erickson RC, et al. Fatal vaccine-induced canine distemper virus infection in black-footed ferrets. J AVMA 1976;169:1-4. 14. Kazacos KR, Thacker HL, Shivaprasad HL, et al. Vaccination-induced distemper in kink ajous. J AVMA 1981;179:1166-1169. 15. Warner TA. Naveh A, Ben Meir NS, Babichev Z, Carmichael LE. Assessment of immunization response to canine distemper virus vaccination in puppies using a clinic-based enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay. Vet J 1998;155:171-175. 16. Wagner RA, Bhardwaj N. Serum-neutralizing antibody responses to canine distemper virus vaccines in domestic ferrets (Mustela putorius furo). J Exotic Pet Med 2012;21:243-247. 17. Greenacre CB. Incidence of adverse events in ferrets vaccinated with distemper or rabies vaccine: 143 cases (1995–2001). JAVMA 2003;223:663-665. 18. Kan KK, Rudd JA, Wai MK. Differential action of anti-emetic drugs on defecation and emesis induced by prostaglandin E2 in the ferret. Eur J Pharmacol 2006;544:153-159. Leonie Kondert Leonie Kondert, DVM, served as Zoo and Exotic Medicine intern at the University of Georgia. Dr. Kondert received her DVM from the University of Veterinary Medicine in Vienna, Austria and successfully completed the ECVFG exam. She also completed one year of training in Zoological Pathology at the Research Institute of Wildlife Ecology and worked three years with small animals in private practice. Her research interests include small mammal medicine and surgery. Joerg Mayer Joerg Mayer is associate professor in zoological medicine at the University of Georgia. He received his doctoral degree from the University of Budapest/ Hungary; completed an internship in zoological medicine and surgery at the Roger Williams Park Zoo in Providence, Rhode Island; and completed a Master of Science degree in wild animal health from the Royal Veterinary College in London, England. He also served as a clinical associate professor and head of the clinical service for exotic animals for 10 years at Tufts University in Boston, Massachusetts. In 2013, he received the Exotic Speaker of the Year award by the NAVC. In 2016, he received the Oxbow/AEMV Exotic Mammal Health Award, an annual award to recognize excellence and innovation in the field of exotic mammal health.

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