Today's Veterinary Practice

MAY-JUN 2018

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PEER REVIEWED 54 ASTHMATIC CAT: MANAGEMENT GUIDELINES is often multimodal. Airway inflammation must be addressed with anti-inflammatory therapy. At present, glucocorticoids are the mainstay of anti- inflammatory therapy. Bronchodilators may also be required in cases that demonstrate evidence of bronchoconstriction, including increased expiratory respiratory effort, wheezing, and/or episodes of expiratory respiratory distress. New treatments are being sought for management of feline allergic asthma, and some have shown promise in experimental models. Additional work remains for translating these potential therapies into clinical practice. References 1. Tseng LW, Drobatz K J. Oxygen supplementation and humidification. In: King LG, ed. Textbook of Respiratory Disease in Dogs and Cats. St. L ouis, MO: Saunders; 2004: 205-213. 2. Mazzaferro EM. Ox ygen therapy. In: Silverstein D, Hopper K, eds. Small Animal Critical Care Medicine, 2 nd ed. St. L ouis, MO: Saunders; 2015:77–80. 3. Plumb DC. Plumb's Veterinary Drug Handbook, 8 th ed. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley Blackwell; 2015. 4. Reinero CR, Decile KC, Byerly JR, et al. Effects of drug treatment on inflammation and hyperreactivity of airways and on immune variables in cats with experimentally induced asthma. Am J Vet Res 2005;66(7):1121-1127. 5. Leemans J, Kirschvink N, Bernaerts F, et al. Salmeterol or doxycycline do not inhibit acute bronchospasm and airway inflammation in cats with experimentally-induced asthma. Vet J 2012;192(1):49-56. 6. Cocayne CG, Reinero CR, DeClue AE. Subclinical airway inflammation despite high-dose oral corticosteroid therapy in cats with lower airway disease. J Feline Med Surg. 2011;13(8):558-563. 7. Cohn LA, DeClue AE, Cohen RL, Reinero CR. Effects of fluticasone propionate dosage in an experimental model of feline asthma. J Feline Med Surg 2010;12(2):91-96. 8. Galler A, Shibly S, Bilek A, Hirt RA. Inhaled budesonide therapy in cats with naturally occurring chronic bronchial disease (feline asthma and chronic bronchitis). J Small Anim Pract 2013;54(10):531-536. 9. Nafe LA, Leach SB. Treatment of feline asthma with ciclosporin in a cat with diabetes mellitus and congestive heart failure. J Feline Med Surg 2015;17(12):1073-1076. 10. Reinero CR, Delgado C, Spinka C, DeClue AE, Dhand R. Enantiomer- specific effects of albuterol on airway inflammation in healthy and asthmatic cats. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 2009;150(1):43-50. 11. Spitzer WO, Suissa S, Ernst P, et al. The use of beta-agonists and the risk of death and near death from asthma. N Engl J Med 1992;326(8):501-506. 12. Leemans J, Kirschvink N, Clercx C, Snaps F, Gustin P. Effect of short- term oral and inhaled corticosteroids on airway inflammation and responsiveness in a feline acute asthma model. Vet J 2012;192(1):41-48. 13. Dye JA, McKiernan BC, Jones SD, Neff-Davis CA, Koritz GD. Sustained- release theophylline pharmacokinetics in the cat. J Vet Pharmacol Ther 1989;12(2):133-140. 14. Guenther-Yenke CL, McKiernan BC, Papich MG, Powell E. Pharmacokinetics of an extended-release theophylline product in cats. J AVMA 2007;231(6):900-906. 15. Dye JA, McKiernan BC, Neff-Davis CA, Koritz GD. Chronopharmacokinetics of theophylline in the cat. J Vet Pharmacol Ther 1990;13(3):278-286. 16. Leemans J, Kirschvink N, Gustin P. A comparison of in vitro relaxant responses to ipratropium bromide, beta-adrenoceptor agonists and theophylline in feline bronchial smooth muscle. Vet J 2012;193(1):228- 233. 17. L eemans J, Kirschvink N, Clercx C, Cambier C, Gustin P. Functional response to inhaled salbutamol and/or ipratropium bromide in Ascaris suum-sensitised cats with allergen-induced bronchospasms. Vet J 2010;186(1):76-83. 18. L eemans J, Cambier C, Chandler T, et al. Prophylactic effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and luteolin on airway hyperresponsiveness and inflammation in cats with experimentally- induced asthma. Vet J 2010;184:111-114. 19. Lee-Fowler TM, Cohn LA, DeClue AE, Spinka CM, Ellebracht RD, Reinero CR. Comparison of intradermal skin testing (IDST) and serum allergen-specific IgE determination in an experimental model of feline asthma. Vet Immunol Immunopa thol 2009;132(1):46-52. 20. Reinero CR, Byerly JR, Berghaus RD, et al. Rush immunotherapy in an experimental model of feline allergic asthma. Vet Immunol Immunopa thol 2006;110(1-2):141-153. 21. L ee-Fowler TM, Cohn LA, DeClue AE, Spink a CM, Reinero CR. Evaluation of subcutaneous versus mucosal (intranasal) allergen- specific rush immunotherapy in experimental feline asthma. Vet Immunol Immunopathol 2009;129(1-2):49-56. 22. Trzil JE, Masseau I, Webb TL, et al. Long-term evaluation of mesenchymal stem cell therapy in a feline model of chronic allergic asthma. Clin Exp Allergy 2014;44(12):1546-1557. 23. Trzil JE, Masseau I, Webb TL, et al. Intravenous adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cell therapy for the treatment of feline asthma: a pilot study. J Feline Med Surg. 2016;18(12):981-990. 24. Morgan RV. Small Animal Drug Handbook, 5 th ed. St. L ouis, MO: Saunders Elsevier; 2011. Tekla Lee-Fowler Tekla Lee-Fowler, DVM, MS, DACVIM, is an assistant professor of small animal internal medicine at Auburn University College of Veterinary Medicine. Her primary area of interest is airway disease of small animals with a research focus of feline lower airway disease. She has authored several book chapters and numerous research articles related to these topics. Dr. Lee- Fowler earned her DVM in 2005 from Mississippi State University. She completed a small animal internal medicine residency at the University of Missouri and attained diplomate status in 2009. Patients with feline asthma may be more prone to secondary airway infections, and it is important to consider this possibility in the initial patient evaluation and during acute exacerbations of feline asthma.

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