Today's Veterinary Practice

MAY-JUN 2018

Today's Veterinary Practice provides comprehensive information to keep every small animal practitioner up to date on companion animal medicine and surgery as well as practice building and management.

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80 MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES What precautions should I use for all wounds? ■ Culture infections prior to administering antibiotics to identify resistant infections and treat them accordingly. ■ Use standard precautions: 14 proper hand hygiene, gloves, and protective outerwear (lab coat or smock). ■ Wear gowns and use gloves when caring for seeping or infected wounds. ■ Cover wounds whenever possible. ■ Sterilize partial rolls of bandage material before re-using or discard them. What is the mechanism of methicillin resistance in MRSA and MRSP? ■ Resistance to methicillin is conferred by the mecA gene [or a homologue identified in 2011, designated mecC 15 ], which codes for an altered version of a protein that binds penicillin. The antibiotic binds poorly to the altered protein, making the bacteria more resistant to the penicillins and all β-lactam antibiotics. The mecA gene is located on a mobile genetic element which has been introduced into the S. aureus genome on many different occasions, leading to identifiable types and subtypes7. Methicillin resistance does not create multi-drug resistance; however, some strains acquire resistance to multiple antibiotics.1 References 1. Weese JS. Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Animals. ILAR Journal 2010; 51(3):233-44. 2. Loeffler A, Pfeiffer DU, Lindsay JA, Soares-Magalhaes R, Lloyd DH. Lack of transmission of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) between apparently healthy dogs in a rescue kennel. Vet Microbiol 2010 Feb 24;141(1-2):178-81. 3. Morris DO, Lautenbach E, Zaoutis T, Leckerman K, Edelstein PH, Rankin SC. Potential for pet animals to harbour methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus when residing with human MRSA patients. Zoonoses Public Health 2012 Jun; 59(4):286-93. 4. Frank LA, Kania SA, Kirzeder EM, Eberlein LC, Bemis DA. Risk of colonization or gene transfer to owners of dogs with meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius. Vet. Dermatol 2009; 20:496–501. 5. Starlander G, Borjesson S Gronlund-Andersson U, et al. Cluster of Infections Caused by Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius in Humans in a Tertiary Hospital. J Clin Micro 2014; 5 2(8): 3118-3120. 6. Davis JA, Jackson CR, Fedorka-Cray PJ, Barrett JB, Brousse JH, Gustafson J, et al. Carriage of methicillin-resistant staphylococci by healthy companion animals in the US. Lett Appl Microbiol. 2014; Jul;59(1):1-8. 7. Loeffler A, Lloyd DH. Companion animals: a resevoir for methicilin- resistant Staphylococcus aureus in the community? Epidemiol Infect 2010; 138:595-605. 8. Loeffler A, Pfeiffer DU, Lindsay JA, Soares Magalhaes RJ, Lloyd DH. Prevalence of and risk factors for MRSA carriage in companion animals: a survey of dogs, cats and horses. Epidemiol Infect 2011 Jul; 139(7):1019-28. 9. L efebvre SL, Weese JS. Contamination of pet therapy dogs with MRSA and Clostridium difficile. J Hosp Infect 2009 Jul; 72(3):268-9. 10. Cohn LA, Middleton JR. A veterinary perspective on methicillin- resistant staphylococci. J Vet Emer Crit Care 2010; 20(1):31-45 11. Iverson SA, Brazil AM, Ferguson JM, Nelson K, Lautenbach E, Rankin SC, et al. Anatomical patterns of colonization of pets with staphylococcal species in homes of people with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) skin or soft tissue infection (SSTI). Vet Microbiol 2015 Mar 23; 176(1-2):202-8. 12. Windahl U, Reimegard E, Holst, BS et al. Carriage of methicillin- resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius in dogs-a longitudinal study. BMC Veterinary Research 2012; 8(34). 13. Bender JB, Waters KC, Nerby J, Olsen KE, Jawahir S. Methicillin- resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolated from pets living in households with MRSA-infected children. Clin Infect Dis 2012; 54(3):449-50. 14. Williams CJ, Scheftel JM, Elchos BL, Hopkins SG, L evine JF. Compendium of Veterinary Standard Precautions for Zoonotic Disease Prevention in Veterinary Personnel: National Association of State Public Health Veterinarians: Veterinary Infection Control Committee J Am Vet Med Assoc 2015 Dec 1; 247(11):1252-77. 15. Paterson GK, Harrison EM, Holmes MA. The emergence of mecC methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Trends in Microbiology. 2014; 22(1):42-47. Malia Ireland Malia graduated from the University of Minnesota College of Veterinary Medicine in 2004 and practiced small animal medicine for 10 years, with an interest in preventive medicine and nutrition. She earned an MPH in Epidemiology from the University of Minnesota School of Public Health in 2016, and currently works as an epidemiologist in the Zoonotic Diseases Unit at the Minnesota Department of Health. Her disease focus is fungal infections in humans and animals. Leslie Kollmann Leslie, a Certified Veterinary Technician since 2002, currently works at the Minnesota Department of Health in the Zoonotic Disease Unit. Leslie was the Infection Control and Safety Technician at the University of Minnesota Veterinary Medical Center for nearly 8 years and has experience in infection control and occupational health specific to the veterinary field. She has also been a member of Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology (APIC) since 2008. Joni Scheftel Joni graduated from the University of Minnesota College of Veterinary Medicine in 1982 and joined a mixed animal practice in Watertown, Minnesota. In 2001, she earned an MPH in Environmental Microbiology from the University of Minnesota School of Public Health. Dr. Scheftel currently serves as State Public Health Veterinarian and supervisor of the Zoonotic Diseases Unit at the Minnesota Department of Health.

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