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FEATURES JULY/AUGUST 2018 47 points above room air (25%) up to approximately 40% if high oxygen flow rates are used (2 to 3 L/ min). Flow-by oxygen is not well tolerated by all patients, however, and could further contribute to anxiety. This approach is impractical for any protracted period and is best suited before induction of anesthesia or while procedures are being performed. Oxygen Facemask Oxygen administered via facemask is another simple technique but again may not be tolerated in anxious patients. The FiO 2 achieved will vary depending on how tightly fitting the facemask is and the flow rate administered. Higher oxygen flow rates (e.g., 2 to 5 L/min) are recommended to achieve an FiO 2 of 35% to 60%. 3 Rebreathing of carbon dioxide can occur with more tightly fitting masks, and periodically switching out the mask is recommended.1 Facemasks are also convenient for oxygen supplementation to dogs undergoing procedures ( FIGURE 3 ). Oxygen Hoods Oxygen hoods can be created with the use of hard e-collars, cellophane wrap, and tape. The hood is covered in the cellophane wrap and secured in place with tape, with a small portion left open for ventilation. Pliable oxygen tubing is fed into the hood from the collar and secured in place. The hood must be saturated with higher flow rates of oxygen (e.g., 1 to 2 L/min) before the rate is reduced to 0.5 to 1 L/min. This should achieve an FiO 2 of 30% to 40% if a tight seal is created. In general, patient compliance is good. The biggest challenges with this technique involve excessive humidification and poor ventilation if too small of a gap is left in the cellophane wrap. This technique is used less commonly in hospitals that prefer alternative, more convenient techniques (e.g., oxygen cages). Oxygen Cage Oxygen cages are a very convenient and efficient method of supplementing oxygen to small animal patients. Several variants are commercially available, including flexible options made of polyvinyl chloride and acrylic glass boxes ( FIGURE 4 ). Similar to the challenges of oxygen hoods, control of temperature, humidification, and ventilation is of paramount importance. More sophisticated and expensive models enable climate control and have soda lime systems in place to prevent rebreathing of carbon dioxide. One advantage of oxygen cages is the physical separation of the clinical team from the patient. This can be helpful in animals for which handling could worsen anxiety and respiratory distress. A disadvantage of this approach, however, is the potential for missing alterations in audible respiratory noise in select patients (e.g., upper respiratory obstruction). Animals with respiratory embarrassment are at risk FIGURE 3. Mixed-breed dog sedated for bandage change receiving supplemental oxygen via facemask. FIGURE 2. Borzoi undergoing flow-by oxygen administration. FIGURE 4. Bulldog in rigid acrylic glass oxygen cage.

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