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INSIGHTS CLINICAL JULY/AUGUST 2018 53 CLINICAL INSIGHTS Indications for imaging the abdominal vasculature include ruling out neoplastic vascular invasion, determining the presence or absence of suspected congenital vascular anomalies, and identifying intravascular thrombi (e.g., in cases of suspected hypercoagulability). The ability to identify abdominal vasculature is also important, as these vessels are used to find normal anatomic structures, such as the pancreas, lymph nodes, and adrenal glands. Thorough evaluation of the abdominal vasculature and lymph nodes, when identifiable, is part of a complete abdominal ultrasound examination and requires experience as well as an understanding of anatomy and Doppler ultrasonography techniques. For more details on the relationship of the abdominal vessels and lymph nodes, please see the July/August 2017 Imaging Essentials article, "Ultrasonography of Peritoneal and Retroperitoneal Spaces and Abdominal Lymph Nodes," on . DOPPLER ULTRASONOGRAPHY Doppler ultrasonography is used to evaluate characteristics of blood flow: its presence or absence, direction, velocity, and character (laminar versus turbulent flow). The 4 Doppler techniques used in ultrasonography are continuous-wave, pulsed-wave, power, and color Doppler, which are divided into spectral displays and color modes. The advantages and disadvantages of the techniques used for abdominal ultrasonography are summarized in TABLE 1 .1 The Doppler principle is based on the Doppler shift frequency equation ( FIGURE 1 ). The change in frequency is in the kHz range and can be heard when displaying spectral Doppler images. Imaging Techniques Spectral Doppler The image is displayed as blood flow velocity (y axis) as a function of time (x axis). Ideally, the sampling line for spectral Doppler imaging is Ultrasonography of the Abdominal Vasculature Elizabeth Huynh, DVM, Erin G. Porter, DVM, DACVR and Clifford R. Berry, DVM, DACVR, University of Florida IMAGING ESSENTIALS Welcome to our series of articles on small animal abdominal ultrasonography. The initial articles provided an overview of basic ultrasonography principles and a discussion about how to perform a systematic scan of the abdomen. The rest of the series discusses ultrasound evaluation of specific abdominal organs/systems. Read the other small animal abdominal ultrasonography articles published in Today's Veterinary Practice at .

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