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PEER REVIEWED 68 JULY/AUGUST 2018 aorta, caudal vena cava, and portal vein systems. Systematic evaluation using color, power, and pulsed- wave Doppler interrogation of the various organs and/ or vessels requires time and patience. As with normal echogenicity and echotexture of the abdominal organs, the normal color, power, and pulsed-wave Doppler flow patterns should be recognized by the ultrasonographer. References 1. Gorgas D. Physical principles. In: Barr F, Gaschen F, eds. BSAVA Manual of Canine and Feline Ultrasonography. Quedgeley: British Small Animal Veterinary Association; 2012:1-14. 2. Mareschal A, d'Anjou MA, Moreau M, et al. Ultrasonographic measurement of kidney-to-aorta ratio as a method of estimating renal size in dogs. Vet Radiol Ultrasound 2007;48:434-438. 3. Mattoon J, Nyland T. Textbook of Small Animal Veterinary Ultrasound. 3 rd ed. St. Louis: Elsevier Saunders; 2015. 4. Llabres-Diaz F. Abdominal Vessels. Gloucester: British Small Animal Veterinary Association; 2009. 5. Dennis R, Kirberger RM, Barr F, et al. Differential Diagnosis in Small Animal Radiology. 2 nd ed: Elsevier Limited; 2010. 6. Chun R, Jakovljevic S, Morrison WB, et al. Apocrine gland adenocarcinoma and pheochromocytoma in a cat. JAAHA 1997;33(1):33-36. 7. Frank JR, Nutter FB, Kyles AE, et al. Systemic arterial dirofilariasis in five dogs. J Vet Intern Med 1997;11(3):189-194. 8. Welles EG, Boudreaux MK, Crager CS, et al. Platelet function and antithrombin, plasminogen, and fibrinolytic activities in cats with heart disease. Am J Vet Res 1994;55(5):619-627. 9. Ritt MG, Rogers KS, Thomas JS. Nephrotic syndrome resulting in thromboembolic disease and disseminated intravascular coagulation in a dog. JAAHA 1997;33(5):385-391. 10. Sykes JE, Kittleson MD, Chomel BB, et al. Clinicopathologic findings and outcome in dogs with infective endocarditis: 71 cases (1992-2005). JAVMA 2006;228(11):1735-1747. 11. Ware WA, Fenner WR. Arterial thromboembolic disease in a dog with blastomycosis localized in a hilar lymph node. JAVMA 1988;193(7):847-849. 12. Zwingenberger A. Ultrasound of arterial and venous thrombosis. 2007. thrombosis/. Accessed January 2018. 13. Respess M, O'Toole TE, Taeymans O, et al. Portal vein thrombosis in 33 dogs: 1998-2011. J Vet Intern Med 2012;26(2):230-237. 14. Lamb CR, Burton CA, Carlisle CH. Doppler measurement of hepatic arterial flow in dogs: technique and preliminary findings. Vet Radiol Ultrasound 1999;40(1):77-81. 15. Edwards DF, Bahr RJ, Suter PF, et al. Portal hypertension secondary to a right atrial tumor in a dog. J AVMA 1978;173(6):750-755. 16. White RN, Burton CA. Anatomy of the patent ductus venosus in the cat. J Feline Med Surg 2001;3(4):229-233. 17. White RN, Burton CA. Anatomy of the patent ductus venosus in the dog. Vet Rec 2000;146(15):425-429. 18. Ruland K, Fischer A, Reese S, et al. Portosystemic shunts in cats— evaluation of six cases and a review of the literature. Berl Munch Tierarztl Wochenschr 2009;122(5-6):211-218. 19. Lamb CR, Forster-van Hijfte MA, White RN, et al. Ultrasonographic diagnosis of congenital portosystemic shunt in 14 cats. J Small Anim Pract 1996;37(5):205-209. 20. d'Anjou MA, Penninck D, Cornejo L, et al. Ultrasonographic diagnosis of portosystemic shunting in dogs and cats. Vet Radiol Ultrasound 2004;45(5):424-437. 21. Holt DE, Schelling CG, Saunders HM, et al. Correlation of ultrasonographic findings with surgical, portographic, and necropsy findings in dogs and cats with portosystemic shunts: 63 cases (1987- 1993). J AVMA 1995;207(9):1190-1193. 22. Dear JD, Shiraki R, Ruby AL, et al. Feline urate urolithiasis: a retrospective study of 159 cases. J Feline Med Surg 2011;13(10):725-732. 23. G Caporali EH, Phillips H, Underwood L, et al. Risk factors for urolithiasis in dogs with congenital extrahepatic portosystemic shunts: 95 cases (1999-2013). JAVMA 2015;246(5):530-536. 24. Boothe HW, Howe LM, Edwards JF, et al. Multiple extrahepatic portosystemic shunts in dogs: 30 cases (1981-1993). J AVMA 1996;208(11):1849-1854. 25. Calvert CA, Thrall DE. Treatment of canine heartworm disease coexisting with right-side heart failure. J AVMA 1982;180(10):1201-1203. 26. Berg RJ, Wingfield WE, Hoopes PJ. Idiopathic hemorrhagic pericardial effusion in eight dogs. J AVMA 1984;185(9):988-992. 27. Fingland RB, Bonagura JD, Myer CW. Pulmonic stenosis in the dog: 29 cases (1975-1984). J AVMA 1986;189(2):218-226. 28. Twedt DC. Cirrhosis: a consequence of chronic liver disease . Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 1985;15(1):151-176. 29. Bunch SE, Johnson SE, Cullen JM. Idiopathic noncirrhotic portal hypertension in dogs: 33 cases (1982-1998). JAVMA 2001;218(3):392-399. 30. Szatmari V, Nemeth T, Kotai I, et al. Doppler ultrasonographic diagnosis and anatomy of congenital intrahepatic arterioportal fistula in a puppy. Vet Radiol Ultrasound 2000;41(3):284-286. 31. Schermerhorn T, Center SA, Dykes NL, et al. Suspected microscopic hepatic arteriovenous fistulae in a young dog. JAVMA 1997;211(1):70-74. Elizabeth Huynh Elizabeth Huynh, DVM, is a diagnostic imaging resident and graduate student at University of Florida College of Veterinary Medicine. Her interests include ultrasonography, cross-sectional imaging, and nuclear medicine. She received her DVM from Ross University, finished her clinical year at Ohio State University, and completed a diagnostic imaging internship at Animal Specialty and Emergency Center in Los Angeles, California. Erin G. Porter Dr. Porter is a 2007 graduate of the University of Florida, College of Veterinary Medicine. Upon graduation, she worked as an equine ambulatory practitioner in the Orlando area for two years before returning to the University of Florida for an equine lameness and imaging internship. Dr. Porter completed a residency In Diagnostic Imaging at the University of Florida and became a diplomat of the American College of Veterinary Radiology in 2013. She has been a clinical assistant professor of diagnostic imaging at the University of Florida since 2013. Her interests include equine orthopedic imaging and small animal ultrasound. She currently lives in Alachua, FL with her husband (Michael) and two young children. Clifford R. Berry Clifford R. Berry, DVM, DACVR, is a professor of diagnostic imaging at University of Florida College of Veterinary Medicine. His research interests include cross-sectional imaging of the thorax, nuclear medicine, and biomedical applications of imaging. He received his DVM from University of Florida and completed a radiology residency at University of California–Davis.

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