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PEER REVIEWED 80 JULY/AUGUST 2018 toxicants (such as, spray paint or the dust from dry pigments). According to unpublished data from the ASPCA Animal Poison Control Center, most pets have only acute, 1-time exposures. 2 Owners frequently learn to pet-proof supply cabinets or prevent access to studios. Many of the safety recommendations for children work for pets, including the following: ■ Store all surplus materials out of the pet's reach. ■ Do not feed or water pets in the area where art is created. ■ Wash hands before petting animals, and do not use solvents to clean spills on animals. ■ Do not leave pets alone in a room with open art supplies or recently finished artwork. POTENTIAL TOXICOSES Examples of media and potential toxicoses that can occur after a pet is exposed to them are provided below. More detailed discussion of decontamination can be found in the March/April 2017 Today's Veterinary Practice article "How to Be Prepared for Most Toxic Exposures in Dogs and Cats." 3 Modeling Clay and Glazes Ingestion of modeling clay generally causes only mild gastrointestinal upset unless the amount ingested is very large. Large ingestions may result in a foreign body. However, glazes (typically mixtures of silica, fluxes, and colorants) for finishing or coloring clay may contain toxic components, such as heavy metals or solvents. Exposure to these glazes may be through the oral, inhalation, or dermal route. Clinical signs vary with the components in the glaze. If the ingredients are not known, do not induce emesis after glaze ingestion. If the glaze contains lead or cadmium, it should be labeled "Not for food use" or "For decoration only"; however, the label "food safe" does not mean the product is free of lead or cadmium, only that if applied and fired properly, the glaze should not leach lead or cadmium into food at concentrations above those allowed by the Food and Drug Administration. #2 Pencils Ingestion of #2 pencils is commonly reported to poison control centers as soon as new school supplies are purchased. These are the ubiquitous pencils used by elementary school students and are typically required for tests. Pencils have a grading system based on hardness (H), blackness (B), and fineness. Most standard writing pencils are graded as HB. Pencils do not contain lead; rather, they contain graphite, which may cause mild stomach upset if ingested. Of more concern is the potential for a foreign body or perforation of the intestinal tract from a very sharp point. Most cases are treated by bulking the diet. Glues Exposure to super glues (cyanoacrylates) generally causes only mild signs. Polymerization occurs rapidly, and systemic toxicity is not expected, regardless of the route of exposure (oral, dermal, or ocular). If the mouth or eyelids are glued shut, soften the area with tepid water; gauze soaked with mineral oil or ophthalmic ointment can also be used on eyelids. Eyelids generally separate in 1 to 4 days. Rarely, corneal ulceration may occur. Treatment of corneal ulcers should be symptomatic and supportive. Hardened glue in the skin or the mouth will wear off within a few days, and it is best to leave the glue in place. Glue that is attached to fur can be clipped off. Polyurethane glues, or expanding wood glues, which can cause foreign bodies that require surgery, are rarely used in artwork. Solvents Rubber cement and some epoxides are solvent based, containing ingredients such as acetone. Paint thinners and mineral spirits are petroleum distillate solvents. Xylene and other aromatic hydrocarbons may be found in products or used as cleaners. Most solvent exposures involve dermal and oral irritation. Small ingestions typically cause only mild gastrointestinal irritation, vomiting, and diarrhea. Vomiting can result in aspiration with subsequent pneumonia, although aspiration is not common. Large ingestions can cause ataxia, arrhythmias, tremors, and renal failure. Few animals willingly ingest large amounts of solvents. The ACMI Approved Product (AP) seal means the product is considered nontoxic for children and adults and does not contain hazardous material in quantities large enough to cause acute or chronic health problems when used per label directions.

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